Flexible PVC is used in a large variety of applications. The plasticiser incorporated in the PVC matrix increases its flexibility to almost any desired level and significantly extends its scope of applications. Many different plasticiser types are used to meet specific end-product requirements. Flexible PVC can be processed with various production technologies like calendering, extrusion, injection moulding and blown extrusion, coating and rotational moulding (plastisol). Normally flexible PVC formulations are processed at lower temperatures compared to rigid and semi-rigid PVC. Type and dosage of PVC stabilisers are selected according to the process technology, working conditions and PVC finished articles. Liquid mixed metals stabilisers are typically used like Ba/Zn, Ca/Zn and Mg/Zn. Solid mixed metals mostly Ca-based are preferred when final application requires low VOC (volatile organic compounds), absence of phenol and solvents. Flexible PVC applications can be divided into two main categories: technical and medical.
Stabilisers are added to PVC to allow its processing and to improve its resistance especially in outdoor applications, weathering and heat ageing and have an important influence on the physical properties of PVC finished articles. Factors such as process technology involved, technical requirements of PVC end product, regulatory requirements and cost, influence the choice of the stabiliser used.
Impact modifiers used to improve the impact performance of plastics, such as PVC and PVC compounds. They provide an excellent balance of impact resistance, modulus and viscosity with an extraordinary good retention of heat distortion temperatures.
Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It has the highest refractive index of any material known to man, even the diamond, and is one of the whitest materials on earth. When ground into a fine powder, it transforms into a pigment that provides maximum whiteness and opacity. TiO2 pigments are used in paints and coatings, plastics, paper, building materials and many other commercial products.